Triangulation in research [Meaning, Types, Examples]

This video explains what triangulation is, types of triangulation, explanation with examples. It covers five types of triangulation, i.e. Methods, Investigator, Theory, Data Source and Data analysis. It also gives explanation with examples.

The triangulation types classified by Denzin are also explained, In addition, the concept of Convergence given by Sandra is also described. For further reading, please consult following sources

1. Natow (2020) The use of triangulation qualitative studies employing elite interviews…

2. The Use of Triangulation in Qualitative Research, Nancy Carter, RN, PhD…

3. Triangulation in Qualitative Research…

4. Qualitative research international https://www.qualityresearchinternatio….


Hello viewers today I’m going to give you a brief overview of one of the important concept in qualitative research that is triangulation.

So first of all I will explain what triangulation is.

Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of the phenomena so why we use triangulation because this is used to increase the validity or ensures the quality of your study.

Now I explain the different types of triangulation

Methods triangulation, Investigator triangulation, Theory triangulation, data source triangulation and data analysis triangulation

So viewers Methods triangulation involves multiple methods of data collection about the same phenomenon. This means we may merge or use different data collection methods at the same time. This may include interviews, observation, pictures and field notes.

The next is Investigator triangulation. It includes the participation of two or more researchers in the same study to bring up the apparent truth or confirm the findings. This means involvement of more than one researcher at the time of data collection or analysis. For example invite study of Russian elite perspectives researchers and their local associates conducted the interviews and summaries or transcripts of the interviews were checked and supplemented by other members of the interview team.

The third type is Theory triangulation. This refers to the use of different theories to analyze and interpret data. for example singer in one of his study used three different theories in his research on why first born children were more adult oriented than later born children. He devised a result strategy to test each of the competing theories.

The next type is Data Source triangulation which involves the collection of data from different type of people including families, groups, communities to get multiple perspectives of the same phenomenon. Denzin one of the research book writer also outline the aspects of time and space or location while analyzing data such as data can be collected at different timings to collect different aspects of the same phenomena or from different locations to confirm the findings. For example grey and jones interviewed political leaders, member of congress, lobbyists, academics and members of organizations involved in a finance campaign.

Another way of triangulation is through data analysis this involves using different approaches of analysis for the same data such as inductive which means drawing findings and concepts out of the data and deductive which means using data to test existing theories and concepts. This means one time researcher draws results from specific to general and simultaneously consult existing theories to validate.

Denzin also classified triangulation in two ways within method triangulation where for example multiple qualitative methods can be used such as interviews and observation both can be used to gather the data. The second type is between or across method triangulation where both qualitative and quantitative methods can be used. This means with qualitative interviews it is very common to see analysis of surveys, electoral data, economic data, public opinion polls and other quantitative data.

Sandra Mathison outlined an alternative way of conceptualizing triangulation that is Convergence. data from different sources use of different methods participation of more than one investigator and so on will produce evidence that will result in a single proposition about some social phenomena.

Another researcher Natow after reviewing a number of qualitative articles reported that nine articles used convergence such as the use of multiple methods and involving multiple researchers at the same time. So viewers I hope my video provided you a complete overview of triangulation concept please share your experience in comment box that which type of triangulation you commonly read in qualitative studies. Thank you.